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Superionic ice

Scientists from the University of Chicago announced that they have achieved a state of matter called “superionic ice” in the laboratory environment. Scientists claim that this substance may also exist in the depths of planets in our solar system.

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Under normal conditions, it is seen that matter takes four different states. They form solid, liquid, gas and plasma. This happens very rarely on Earth, although other states of matter seem to exist in extreme cases. That; Depending on the conditions, it exists in three different structures as ice, liquid or vapor. But scientists have achieved the “superionic ice” state of matter by using diamonds and X-rays to recreate conditions deep within planets.

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Scientists think that superionic ice was formed by extreme temperatures and pressures, like those deep within Neptune and Uranus. Previous studies have also succeeded in obtaining this substance for a short time. But according to a new study published in the journal Nature Physics, scientists from the University of Chicago were able to reliably form and study superionic ice over a long period of time.

University of Chicago researcher Vitali Prakapenka said that thanks to a few powerful tools, they were able to accurately map the properties of this superionic ice, which forms a new phase of matter. Researcher Prakapenka said at the press conference, “No one thought this phase would be successful, which came as a surprise.” said.

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Prakapenka and colleagues continue their work at the Argonne National Laboratory with an accelerator Advanced Photon Source that produces X-rays at close to the speed of light. In the study, electrons were sandwiched between two diamonds (the hardest substance on earth) to mimic the intense pressure. Then a laser beam was sent to the diamonds to heat the material, this accelerator created a very strong pressure of 20 gigapascals. With the reduction of pressure, a completely new structure, “superionic ice” appeared.

“Imagine a lattice at the corners of a cube in which oxygen atoms are bound together by hydrogen. When this superionic ice transforms, the lattice expands and the hydrogen atoms are allowed to move while the position of the oxygen atoms remains fixed.

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“Superionic ice acts like a solid oxygen lattice holding hydrogen atoms floating in the ocean.” said. Underlining that all of the chemical and physical properties of superionic ice have not yet been discovered, Prakapenka said, “This substance behaves like a fundamentally new material, but it may be different from what we thought.”

Moreover, the depths of the Black Sea are more mysterious compared to other seas, because it has a feature that will live up to its name. You rarely come across a living creature after about 200 meters. In those depths, there are galley ships belonging to the Ottoman Empire that sunk centuries ago.

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We dominate space much more than our oceans and seas. Still, there are many scientists who do research on our seas. Perhaps the most curious sea in the world is located in the north of our country. A dark place to live up to its name, the Black Sea is home to many mysteries on its base that will perhaps be discovered in the coming years.

4 years ago, scientists conducted research in deep waters that were dominated by Bulgaria today and by the Ottoman Empire centuries ago. The team, who came across a number of sunken ship ruins that were better preserved than they had ever seen before, came across with the findings that these ships belonged to the Ottoman Empire.

The Black Sea MAP or Black Sea Maritime Archeology Project team was running a project supported by a UK-based institution called the “Expedition and Education Foundation” on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in 2016. The aim of the project was to investigate how the flooding of the Mediterranean Sea due to the melting glaciers after the Ice Age and the resulting Black Sea affected early human societies 12,000 years ago.

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Since the project, which included researchers from different parts of the world, was quite high-budget, they had remote-controlled underwater vehicles called ROVs that could go deep into the water for meters. The team, consisting of scientists from many different institutions such as the Bulgarian National Archaeological Institute, the Bulgarian Center for Underwater Archeology, Sweden Sodertorn University and the Greek Marine Research Center, started to get unexpected images from the ROV vehicles during a night study.